1. Importance of Wheat:

Increasing the efficiency of plant production in our limited agricultural areas is of great importance in solving the nutritional problems of our rapidly growing population. One of the most important field crops in human nutrition is wheat ( Triticum aestivum  L. ). Flour, bulgur, pasta, starch obtained from wheat products in human nutrition; The stems of the wheat plant are used in the paper-cardboard industry and animal nutrition. Wheat is cultivated on an area of ​​approximately 9.4 million hectares in our country, and production is between 19-21 million tons depending on the annual precipitation from year to year. Yield per decare is between 203-223 kg.


2. Climate and Soil Requirements:

Wheat plant requires low temperature and plenty of humid air in the early stages of the growing period. Especially during germination and tillering, the temperature required by the wheat is 5-10  o C, and the humidity is about 60%. In the second stage of wheat development, a temperature of 10-15  o C and a relative humidity of 65% are required.

Although the wheat plant grows in all kinds of soils, it is usually taken from deep, clayey, loamy-clay, humus-rich soils with high yields. On the other hand, it is possible to grow durum wheat in poorer soils than bread wheat.


3. Tillage:

Tillage  is one of the most important processes in wheat farming in order to obtain high quality and abundant products. In order for the sown seed to germinate on time and uniformly, the seed bed should be carefully prepared. In the preparation of the wheat seed bed, for example, in the sunflower-wheat rotation in Thrace, reduced tillage is appropriate in terms of protecting the organic matter in the soil and being economical. In the preparation of the seed bed to be made with this method, the stalk residues left in the field after the sunflower harvest should be thoroughly mixed in order to turn into organic matter by shredding it with a straw shredder and processing it with a goble disc at a depth of 10-15 cm. Our farmers should definitely not plow for wheat cultivation in very moist soil conditions. For this our ancestorsploughing the field turns to mud and then to iron ”.


4. Fertilization:

In order to make a conscious and balanced fertilization in wheat agriculture, our producers should analyze the soil samples they will take duly to represent the field they will plant and fertilize according to the recommended recommendation.

Phosphorus fertilizers should be applied to the soil at or before planting. Nitrogen fertilization should be done by dividing it into three so that nitrogen is not washed out of the soil. The first part of nitrogen is 20-25 kg per decare by using one of the compound fertilizers such as 20-20-0 before planting or together with planting, the second part is 8-10 kg/da in the form of urea (46% N) at the end of February and the last third part of it. At the end of March, it is appropriate to give it in the form of ammonium nitrate (26% N or 33% N) by scattering on the field between 16-20 kg/da.

In wheat agriculture, the application of phosphorus, potassium, zinc, calcium and sulfur fertilizers to the soil before planting ensures easy and sufficient intake of the plants in the future growth and development process. According to the researches of the cultivation techniques, in Thrace, in agricultural areas with an annual precipitation of 600 mm, the wheat grain yield target to be taken per decare is 14 kg/da pure nitrogen when it is 500 kg/da in dry conditions and 700 kg/da and above in irrigated farming conditions. 16 kg/da pure nitrogen and 4-5 kg/da pure phosphorus doses are sufficient. The ideal application of nitrogen fertilizers, which has the most effect on the yield and quality of the wheat product, is done by dividing it into three.

In the first nitrogen fertilizer application in wheat agriculture  , one third of the nitrogen before planting or with planting, according to the nutrients deficient in the soil, containing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) together (NP)  18.46.0,  zinc added (NP+Zn)  20.20.0 +(1% Zn)  or   any one of the 10.25.5+(5% CaO)+(15% SO 3 ) compound fertilizers containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium as well as calcium and sulfur (NPK+Ca+S) called as  crop fertilizer 25 per decare It can be given around kg/da. The other third of the second nitrogen fertilizer application is 10-12 kg/da in the form of urea (46% N) and the third nitrogen fertilizer application  in February during the tillering period of wheat.  It is appropriate to give the last third of the plants to the field at the end of March, in other words, in the form of ammonium nitrate (33% N) before picking up the stem, between 15-20 kg/da.


5. Wheat Seed and Amount to be Sown per Decare:

The use of certified seeds is very important in order to obtain high and quality products in wheat farming.  A good seed should be suitable for the conditions of the region, tested in the region where it will be planted, required by the millers, registered or with production permission, high yield potential and seeding speed, full grains, and must be sprayed against diseases (such as tillage) and pests (such as Z abrus sp.  .

The amount of seed to be planted should be calculated according to the tillering capacity of the wheat variety, the thousand grain weight, the output power and the purity of the seed, as 500 live grains per 1 m2 . The amount of seeds to be planted per decare varies from variety to variety and seed size. For example, the most suitable amount of seeds to be planted per decare in Thrace is 18-20 kg in varieties with high tillering ability such as Pehlivan and Golia, 16-18 kg in small varieties such as Sarajevo, 20 in coarse-grained varieties such as Flamura-85, Gelibolu and Tekirdağ, and 20 in high-grain varieties.  It should be between -24  kg.


7. October Time:

One of the most important factors determining the sowing time in wheat farming is the soil temperature in the seed bed. If planting is done when the soil temperature is 8-10  o C, root development will be fast and the root crown will be deep. Sowing at this appropriate time increases resistance to cold and drought. It is inconvenient in early sowing, late sowing as it will cause damage to the plant from severe cold in winter. For example, the most suitable planting date for the Thrace region is between October 15 and November 15.


8. Planting Depth:

Winter wheat planting can be done at a depth of 5-6 cm. Considering the thousand-grain weight or size of the seed to be planted, this depth can be 4-5 cm for small seeds and 5-6 cm for large seeds.


9. Sowing Method:

Mostly, our producers use modern combined or universal sowing machines (seeder) in wheat sowing. Wheat sowing machines can be printed, flat and combined sowing on the arc base. Today in our country, it is possible to find planter stand type bottom spring, ax or disc seed drills suitable for all regions and soil conditions.


10. October Watch (Alternation):

Planting the same plant in the same field on top of each other in agricultural areas causes the soil to become poorer and the diseases of that plant to increase. In terms of sustainable agriculture, wheat, sunflower, Hungarian vetch, canola, melon, watermelon, onion, bean every year or at least every two years in order to fight against root diseases, pests such as zabrus and wheat fly in the same field and to maintain the yield in the soil . should enter crop rotation with crops such as corn.


11. Weed Control:

Chemical control in the wheat field increases the grain yield by 20-30% when the weeds are 2-4 leaves in the early stage. Depending on whether the weeds seen in their fields are narrow or broad-leaved, our farmers should take the right herbicide and use it on time, at the recommended dose, with the appropriate amount of water in windless weather. When using drugs that are used in very low doses of 1-3 grams per decare, such as the chlorosulforon group, and have long-lasting effects on the soil, care should be taken to avoid adverse effects on the next crop, especially in organic matter-poor sandy lands.


12: Fighting Diseases:

Wheat fields should be checked every week, especially in spring, for fungal diseases such as root, powdery mildew, rust, which are especially common in the Thrace region. In case of suspicion of the disease, the specialists should be informed and the necessary chemical control should be done.  It should be done in a timely manner in line with the recommendations of agricultural experts against pests such as thrush ( Zabsrus sp. ) and sunn pest ( Eurygaster spp.) that can be seen in wheat plantings.


13. Foliar Fertilizers:

In wheat agriculture, foliar fertilizer applications should be preferred to wheat fields where nutrient deficiency is ensured by consulting the relevant experts, licensed, TSE certified and in a formulation that will meet the required nutrients. Foliar fertilizers should be mixed with water in the right ratio according to the instructions on the package and applied with a suitable sprayer and in the evening on windless days.


14. Watering:

Irrigation in wheat agriculture should be done with a suitable method such as sprinkler irrigation in the years when April and May are dry, where possible, during pregnancy and milk production periods. Irrigation in dry years provides 100% yield increase in wheat farming compared to dry conditions. Plants  need water the most during the stemming and milking period.


15. Harvest:

Harvesting with a combine harvester in wheat farming is done when the humidity in the grain is around 13-15%. When the harvest time comes, the wheat plant is in the full maturity stage and completely takes the color of straw. Entering the harvest early requires drying in the product, and being late increases the harvest losses.


16. Conclusion:

As a result, obtaining high and quality products from a unit area in wheat agriculture, which is of great importance for our country, depends on our producers' good soil preparation, homogeneous planting, conscious fertilization, and timely fight against weeds, pests and diseases.